About the Exhibit

This exhibit is an introductory resource for the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922), the Treaty of Lausanne, the experiences of those affected by the population exchange, and the development of modern Greece and Turkey. Elaina Ryan and Bennett Lowe, along with Zachary Quint (mentor), created this exhibit during their summer internship with the Michigan Library Scholars program at the University of Michigan Library. This exhibit incorporates a variety of resources provided by the University of Michigan Library. Many of these sources are accessible to University of Michigan affiliates through the U-M Library. From these sources, we have primarily focused on the consequences of ethnic homogenization as a result of the Treaty of Lausanne that concluded the Greco-Turkish War, as well as the nation-building of Greece and Turkey following the conflict.


This exhibit was curated by Bennett Lowe and Elaina Ryan under the mentorship of Zachary Quint. Thank you to Caitlin Pollock for assisting with the Omeka software and for publishing this exhibit. We would also like to thank Maura Seale for helping with archival sources, and Timothy Utter for locating and providing information on the maps used in this exhibit. We are also grateful for the information provided by William Stroebel on immigrants’ experience in Greece following the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922). Thank you to Feyza Sayman for providing information on the Turkish language and on Turkish place names. We also want to recognize all those who provided informational workshops throughout the internship: Meghan Musolff, Edras Rodriguez-Torres, Heidi Burkhardt, and Stephanie Rosen. Finally, we would like to show our appreciation for the hard work of Gabriel Duque, Theresa Stanko, and all others who helped make the Michigan Library Scholars Program and this exhibit possible.  


Ahmad, Feroz. “The Young Turk Revolution.” Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 3, no. 3, 1968, pp. 19–36. 

Akgül, Öner. “Profiling the Political and Military Leaders of the War.” Salvation and Catastrophe : The Greek-Turkish War, 1919-1922. Konstantinos Travlos, editor. Rowman & Littlefield, 2020.

Alaranta, Toni. “Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s Six-Day Speech of 1927: Defining the Official Historical View of the Foundation of the Turkish Republic.” Turkish Studies. Vol. 9, No. 1. Taylor & Francis Ltd. pp. 115-129. 

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism. Revised Edition. Verso, 2016. 

Baillie, Lauren. “Why Biden’s Recognition of the Armenian Genocide Is Significant: Protection of human rights and communities at risk of atrocities should be an integral component of U.S. diplomacy.” United States Institute of Peace. 29 April 2021. 

Bjørnlund, Mattias. “A Fate Worse Than Dying: Sexual Violence During the Armenian Genocide.” Brutality and Desire: War and Sexuality in Europe’s Twentieth Century. Dagmar Herzog, ed. Palgrave Macmillian, 2020. 

Cagaptay, Soner. “Race, Assimilation, and Kemalism: Turkish Nationalism and the Minorities in the 1930s.” Middle Eastern Studies.  Vol. 40, No. 3. Taylor & Francis, Ltd. pp. 86-101. 

Eser, Umit. "Homeland as Terra Pericolosa: Post-Catastrophe Homecoming Narratives of Smyrniote Greeks in Early Republican Turkey." Journal of Modern Greek Studies, vol. 40 no. 1, 2022, p. 169-193.

Exertzoglou, Haris. “Children of Memory: Narratives of the Asia Minor Catastrophe and the Making of Refugee Identity in Interwar Greece.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies, vol. 34, no. 2, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 343–66.

Gözaydịn, İşatar. "Turkey." The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History. Oxford University Press. Accessed 25 July 2022.

Grigoriadis, Ioannis N. “Redefining the Nation: Shifting Boundaries of the ‘Other’ in Greece and Turkey.” Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 47, no. 1, 2011, pp. 167–82.

Hanioğlu, M. Şükrü. Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017.

İlker Aytürk. “Turkish Linguists against the West: The Origins of Linguistic Nationalism in Atatürk’s Turkey.” Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 40, no. 6, 2004, pp. 1–25.

Keyder, Çağar. “The Consequences of the Exchange of Populations for Turkey.” Hirschon, Renee, editor. Crossing the Aegean : An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange between Greece and Turkey. Berghahn Books, 2003.

Kaloudis, George. “Ethnic Cleansing in Asia Minor and the Treaty of Lausanne.” International Journal on World Peace, vol. 31, no. 1, 2014, pp. 59–88.

Kırlı, Biray Kolluoḡlu. “Forgetting the Smyrna Fire.” History Workshop Journal, no. 60, 2005, pp. 25–44.

Kitromilides, Paschalis M., ed. Eleftherios Venizelos : The Trials of Statesmanship. Edinburgh University Press, 2006.

Klapsis, Antonis. “American Initiatives for the Relief of Greek Refugees, 1922-1923.” Genocide Studies and Prevention, vol. 6, no. 1, University of Toronto Press, pp. 98–106.

Lagos, Constantinos and Carr, John. Philip, Prince of Greece: The Duke of Edinburgh’s Early Life and the Greek Succession. Pen & Sword Books Ltd., 2021. 

League, Panayotis. Echoes of the Great Catastrophe : Re-Sounding Anatolian Greekness in Diaspora. University of Michigan Press, 2021.

McDowall, David. A Modern History of the Kurds. I.B. Tauris & Company, Ltd. 2004. pp. 126-135, 190-208.

Oran, Baskin. “The Story of Those Who Stayed: Lessons From Articles 1 and 2 of the 1923 Convention.” Hirschon, Renee, editor. Crossing the Aegean : An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange between Greece and Turkey. Berghahn Books, 2003.

Papalias, Penelope. “Witnesses to Witnessing: Records of Research at an Archive of Refugee Testimony.” Genres of Recollection: Archival Poetics and Modern Greece by Penelope Papalias. Palgrave Macmillan US, 2006. pp. 93-138. 

Paphitis, Nicholas. “Greek court reverses traitor convictions from 1922.” Toronto Star. 20 October 2010. 

Pedley, John Griffiths. The Life and Work of Francis Willey Kelsey : Archaeology, Antiquity, and the Arts. University of Michigan Press, 2012.

Repousis, Angelo. Greek-American Relations from Monroe to Truman. The Kent State University Press, 2013.

Sert, Deniz Şenol and Türkmen, Fulya Felicity. “The Greek-Turkish War and the Waves of Migration: Redemption or Devastation?” Salvation and Catastrophe : The Greek-Turkish War, 1919-1922. Konstantinos Travlos, editor. Rowman & Littlefield, 2020.

Sherrard, Philip, et al. George Seferis: Collected Poems (1924-1955). Bilingual ed. Princeton University Press, 1969.

Smith, Michael Llewellyn. Ionian Vision : Greece in Asia Minor, 1919-1922. University of Michigan Press, 1998.

Smith, Michael Llewellyn. Venizelos: The Making of a Greek Statesman, 1864-1914. London: Hurst & Company, 2021.

Stroebel, William. “Distancing Disaster: Trauma, Medium, and Form in the Greco-Turkish War and Population Exchange.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies, vol. 32, no. 2, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 253–85.

Travlos, Konstantinos. “Introduction.” Salvation and Catastrophe : The Greek-Turkish War, 1919-1922. Konstantinos Travlos, editor. Rowman & Littlefield, 2020.

United Nations. “Ethnic Cleansing: Definition.” United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect. Accessed 29 June 2022. Article Link

Zürcher, Erik. “The Politician as Historian, Historians in Politics: On the Nutuk (Speech) of Mustafa Kemal Pasha.” The Young Turk Legacy and Nation Building: From the Ottoman Empire to Atatürk’s Turkey by Erik Zürcher. London: I.B. Tauris, 2010. pp. 6-16.

Rights Statement

The University of Michigan Library has placed copies of these works online for educational and research purposes. These works may be under copyright. If you decide to use any of these works, you are responsible for making your own legal assessment and securing any necessary permission. If you have questions about this exhibit, please contact Zachary Quint (zlquint@umich.edu). If you have technical problems with this exhibit, please contact ask-omeka@umich.edu.

The Legacies of the Greco-Turkish War