About the Exhibit

This exhibit, which was organized by Quinn Byington and William McClelland under the mentorship of Zachary Quint and sponsored by the Michigan Library Scholars program at the University of Michigan Library, is an introductory resource for those interested in learning more about the Greek War of Independence, 19th century European international politics, and/or the origins of nationalism and the modern nation-state. Many of the resources used are accessible to University of Michigan affiliates through the U-M Library. From those resources, we have created an overview of the Greek War of Independence that primarily focuses on the international influences on Greek revolutionary ideology as well as the various European and American responses to the revolution at its outset.


This exhibit was curated by William McClelland and Quinn Byington, with Zachary Quint as mentor. Thank you to Stephanie Rosen and Heidi Burkhardt for their assistance in accessibility, Maura Seale for her help in finding historical resources, and Timothy Utter for his help finding maps and map databases. Exhibition assistance was also provided by Caitlin Pollock. William Stroebel and Hakki Erdem Cipa helped to provide Modern Greek and Ottoman Turkish transliterations and resources respectively. We would also like to thank all who took the time to provide informational workshops - Meghan Musolff, Craig Smith, and Edras Rodriguez-Torres. Finally, we would like to thank Gabriel Duque, Theresa Stanko, and the entire Michigan Library Scholars program for all their help making this exhibition possible.    


Amadou, Christine. “Philhellenism as a Regime of Forgetting: The Norwegian Archaeologist Ingvald Undset and His Report from Greece.” History of Humanities 5, no. 1 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2020).

Bayerle, Gustav. “Pashas, Begs, and Effendis: A Historical Dictionary of Titles and Terms in the Ottoman Empire.” Book. Istanbul: Isis Press, 1997. 

Beaton, Roderick. Byron’s War : Romantic Rebellion, Greek Revolution. Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Brewer, David. Greece, the Hidden Centuries Turkish Rule from the Fall of Constantinople to Greek Independence. I.B. Tauris, 2012.

Cline, Myrtle Agnes. “American Attitude toward the Greek War of Independence, 1821-1828.” Book. Atlanta, Ga., 1930.

Clogg, Richard. Miscellanea Graecoturcica : Essays on Greek and Turkish History. First edition, The Isis Press, 2015.

Constantine, David. Early Greek Travellers and the Hellenic Ideal. Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Crawley, Charles William. “The Question of Greek Independence; a Study of British Policy in the Near East. 1821-1833.” Book. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press, 1930.

Dialla, Ada and Alexis Heraclides. “Intervention in the Greek War of Independence.” In Humanitarian Intervention in the Long Nineteenth Century: Setting the Precedent (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2015)

Dialla, Ada. “The Congress of Vienna, the Russian Empire, and the Greek Revolution.” Journal of Modern Greek Studies 39, no. 1 (2021): 27-47.

Dimopoulos, Aristide G. L’opinion publique française et la révolution grecque, 1821-1827Nancy-Saint-Nicolas-de Port : Impr. V. Idoux, 1962.

Dostian, I.S. “L’attitude de la société russe face au mouvement de libération national grec.” In Les Rélations gréco-russes pendant la domination turque.” Thessaloniki : Institute for Balkan Studies, 1983.

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Ferris, David S. Silent Urns : Romanticism, Hellenism, Modernity. Stanford University Press, 2000.

Fleming, K.E. The Muslim Bonaparte : Diplomacy and Orientalism in Ali Pasha's GreecePrinceton: Princeton University Press, 2014. 

Frary, Lucien J. Russia and the Making of Modern Greek Identity, 1821-1844. First edition, Oxford University Press, 2015.

Frary, Lucien J., and Kozelsky, Mara. Russian-Ottoman Borderlands the Eastern Question Reconsidered. The University of Wisconsin Press, 2014.

Gallant, Thomas W. Modern Greece. Arnold ; Oxford University Press, 2001.

Hårdstedt, Martin. “Decline and Consolidation: Sweden, the Napoleonic Wars and Geopolitical Restructuring in Northern Europe.” In Napoleon’s Empire: European Politics in Global Perspective (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016).

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Kitromilides, Paschalis. Enlightenment and Revolution the Making of Modern Greece. Harvard University Press, 2013.

Kitromilides, Paschalis, and Tsoukalas, Konstantinos, editors. The Greek Revolution : A Critical Dictionary. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2021.

Koliopoulos, John, and Veremis, Thanos. Modern Greece : A History since 1821Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

Kolovos, Elias. Across the Aegean : Islands, Monasteries and Rural Societies in the Ottoman Greek Lands. First edition., The Isis Press, 2018.

Mäkeler, Hendrik. “Petra Pakkanen, August Myhrberg and North-European Philhellenism: Building the myth of a hero.” Klio: Beiträge zur Alten Geschichte 93, No. 1 (Germany: Walter De Gruyter, 2011).

McKnight, James Lawrence. 1965. Admiral Ushakov and the Ionian Republic; The Genesis of Russia’s First Balkan Satellite (Doctoral dissertation).

Milne, Andrew. Metternich. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1975.

Pakkanen, Petra. August Myhrberg and North-European Philhellenism. Helsinki: Suomen Ateenan-instituutin säätiö, 2006. 

Pappas, Paul Constantine. The United States and the Greek War for Independence, 1821-1828Columbia University Press, 1985.

Pécout, Gilles. “Philhellenism in Italy: political friendship and the Italian volunteers in the Mediterranean in the nineteenth century.” Journal of Modern Italian Studies 9, No. 4 (2010).

Philliou, Christine May. Biography of an Empire : Governing Ottomans in an Age of RevolutionUniversity of California Press, 2011.

Poulos, Margaret. Arms and the Woman : Just Warriors and Greek Feminist Identity. Columbia University Press, 2009.

Prousis, Theophilus C. Russian Society and the Greek Revolution. Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1994. 

Psomas, Andreas I. The Nation, the State, and the International System : The Case of Modern Greece. In association with the National Center for Social Science Research, 1978.

Raizis, M. Byron, and Papadopoulos, Alexandros I. American Poets and the Greek Revolution, 1821-1828 : A Study in Byronic Philhellenism. Institute of Balkan Studies, Possibly between 1971-1972.

Roessel, David E. In Byron’s Shadow : Modern Greece in the English & American ImaginationOxford University Press, 2002.

Salic, Giampaolo. "The Greek mirror: philhellenism and southern Italian patriotisms (1750–1861)." Journal of Modern Italian Studies 20, no. 4 (October 21, 2015): 491-507.

St. Clair, William. That Greece Might Still Be Free; the Philhellenes in the War of IndependenceOxford University Press, 1972.

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of Independence.” International Politics 55, No. 1 (January 2018): 108-124.

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Woodhouse, C. M. Modern Greece : A Short History. 3rd ed., rev., Faber and Faber, 1984.

Rights Statement

The University of Michigan Library has placed copies of these works online for educational and research purposes. These works may be under copyright. If you decide to use any of these works, you are responsible for making your own legal assessment and securing any necessary permission. If you have questions about this exhibit, please contact Zachary Quint (zlquint@umich.edu). If you have concerns about the inclusion of an item in this exhibit, please contact ask-omeka@umich.edu.

Beyond Politics: Philhellenism & the Public